This post contains a short history of the Brazilian Jewish farming communities supported by Baron Hirch’s legacy and some references. You can read about eye witness descriptions of these communities here.
Baron Hirsch established the Jewish Colonization Agency (JCA) in 1891 “to assist and promote the emigration of Jews from any part of Europe or Asia… and to form and establish colonies in various parts of North and South America ….”. And during the Baron’s lifetime the Agency supported farming communities for Eastern European Jewish immigrants in Argentina, the United States, and Canada.
But after the Baron’s death in 1896, the new directors of the JCA decided to establish additional communities in the extreme South of Brazil. They were located near the city of Santa Maria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The first Brazilian colony, Philippson, opened in 1904, and the second, Quatro Irmãos, in 1912. Three other colonies were later formed. Continue reading