In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Baron Maurice de Hirsch, the builder of the Vienna-Constantinople Railroad, and his friends, sponsored the settlement of Eastern European Jews in many lands. They spent the equivalent of $2 billion in today’s dollars, working primarily in North and South America.
Este blog fue creado para recopilar y contar las historias de los agricultores judíos que Baron Maurice de Hirsch supported in both North and South America and the follow-on stories of their descendants worldwide.
Presentamos obras escritas y visuales que representan a los inmigrantes originales y relatan los logros de los descendientes de estos inmigrantes. Y hay muchos logros. Nuestros antepasados eran personas valientes e ingeniosas, al igual que sus nietos y bisnietos.
Esperamos que nos envíe sus historias y permiso para publicarlas. Hacer clic aquí para contactarnos. Y si tiene una pregunta particular sobre este fenómeno de inmigración, háganoslo saber. Investigaremos la respuesta y escribiremos una publicación.
MÁS SOBRE BARON HIRSCH
Para toda la historia, lea la historia oficial de la Asociación de Colonización Judía del Barón Hirsch, Un brazo extendido.
For information on Baron Hirsch’s work in the United States through the Jewish Agricultural Society see this post by Professor Emeritus of North Carolina State University, Gary Moore.
aquí you can find over 50 different books on the life and work of Baron Hirsch.
Además, mira esto Breve resumen del trabajo del barón Hirsch con agricultores judíos.
aquí is a 1910 report from the U.S. Government on “Hebrews in Agriculture”. including many of Baron Hirsch’s projects.
Hacer clic aquí for a list of the archives worldwide of Baron Hirsch-related documents, including correspondence with individual immigrants.
Please do click on the links in the text. They lead to so much fascinating information.
This post on Jewish farmers on the Canadian prairies was inspired by Land of Hope, the memoirs of Clara Hoffer. In 1907Clara’s husband, Israel, co-founded the Sonnenfeld Colony in Saskatchewan. Clara had lived previously a little further north with her parents in the Lipton Colony, which was founded by Baron Hirsch’s Jewish Colonization Association (JCA) in 1901.Land of Hopewas sent to me by Mark Gardner whose grandfather Aaron and great-uncle Harry also settled in Sonnenfeld. I am very grateful.
Between 1884 and 1912 thirty-one Jewish farming settlements were formed on the Canadian prairies spread out among three western provinces, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. 1 That is quite a hefty figure. Especially, when we remember that farming was not at all a typical Jewish profession where these settlers came from, Eastern Europe and Russia.
But somehow in Canada, things were different. As the Western Canada Director of Baron Hirsch’s Jewish Colonization Association,Louis Rosenberg noted, among all the peoples who settled in Canada, the percentage of those who farmed in Canada is lower than the percentage who farmed in their country of origin. Except for the Jews. By coming to Canada the Jews actually increased the percentage of farmers in their community. 2
And in Saskatchewan where most of the Jewish farming colonies were located, Jewish homesteaders were some of the first in the province. They arrived before the Doukhobors, Russians, Germans, Hungarians, and Ukrainians. “Only the “Mennonites and immigrants from Britain and Iceland,” preceded the Jews.3 In fact, the earliest marked grave in all of the Canadian prairies can be found in the Hirsch Colony cemetery. It belongs to Judah Blank and is dated December 18, 1894. 4
Baron Hirsch Helps Them Out
Baron Hirsch’s generosity helped many of these farmers. ( For a thorough discussion of how Baron Hirsch funds came to Canada see Chiel, Arthur (1961) “Agricultural Attempts, “The Jews of Manitoba, ” University of Toronto Press, 1961. ) Hirsch’s Jewish Colonization Association (JCA) only established two of the colonies, Hirsch and Lipton. But there was not one farming community “in the whole of Canada that [did] not benefit … from the assistance of [the JCA].” 5 The JCA helped build synagogues, offered the original capital for cooperatives, paid for teachers and rabbis, and gave out loans at half the usual bank rates, over 2000 loans between 1900 and 1923. 6
In fact, when the Regina, Saskatchewan Leader-Post published a story in July 1980 on the Jewish Farming Communities, they chose as their lead photo a portrait of the Baron.
This post is just an outline of this Canadian prairie story and doesn’t cover all of the settlements. There is so much more to tell and so many wonderful sources. So click on all the links in the text and footnotes and enjoy the richness of this history. Note that in footnote nr. 7 you can find a list of major works on this agricultural adventure.7
And if you are looking for information on a particular Jewish Canadian prairie farmer go to the website of the Canadian Jewish Heritage Network and put his or her name into the search bar. You could be amazed by what you find.
The year was 1882 and Sir Alexander Galt, Canada’s High Commissioner (Ambassador) in London was looking to help the Canadian government populate the Canadian West. The West had just become part of Canada a dozen years before. A transcontinental railroad, the Canadian Pacific, was being built, and treaties with the indigenous peoples had made the land available for settlers. Interestingly, the Canadians not only sought to build out their nation. They also wanted to settle the West quickly because they feared that pioneers in the United States would seek to extend the border further north. In addition, Galt had plans to build railroads to hook up with the transcontinental to transfer the coal from his newly purchased mines.
Rosenberg, Louis, (1939) ” “Jews in Agriculture,” in Canada’s Jews: A social and economic study of Jews in Canada in the 1930s, p 218. , Text available at archive.net To use archive.net you need to establish a free account. [↩]
Belkin, Simon (1926), “Jewish Colonization in Canada,” in Arthur Daniel Hart, ed., The Jew in Canada (Toronto and Montreal), pp. 483-488 (pp. 503-508 in the digital version),
Wolff, Martin. “THE JEWS OF CANADA." The American Jewish Year Book 27 (1925): 154–229. ( see especially Agricultural Colonies pp. 192-198)
Rosenberg, Louis (1939), Jews in Agriculture,Canada’s Jews, Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 217-225. (This is on archive.net. To use archive.net you need to establish a free account.) [↩]
And Lehmann also provides us an eyewitness view of so much of Baron Hirsch’s life, based on Lehmann’s extensive archival research in Austria, Belgium, England, France, Israel, Turkey, and the United States.
Readers will enjoy this very readable and delightfully detailed text that describes human beings, not just historical figures. We are able to see the building of transcontinental railroads and the formation of huge refugee projects from the details of the daily activities that led to these achievements, as exemplified by the book’s first paragraph ” At seven o’clock one summer morning in August 1895, Maurice de Hirsch, accompanied by his twenty-nine-year-old son Lucien, set out from Boitsfort, on the outskirts of Brussels, to catch the express train to the Belgian seaside resort of Ostend. The reason for that morning’s journey was a summons by King Leopold II, who was eager to convince the prominent Jewish banker and businessman to invest in the construction of a new railroad in the Belgian Congo.” 2
This post contains a short history of the first Brazilian Jewish farming communities supported by Baron Hirsch’s legacy and some references. You can read about eyewitness descriptions of these communities aquí.
Baron Hirsch established the Jewish Colonization Agency (JCA) in 1891 “to assist and promote the emigration of Jews from any part of Europe or Asia… and to form and establish colonies in various parts of North and South America ….”. And during the Baron’s lifetime, the Agency supported farming communities for Eastern European Jewish immigrants in Argentina, the United States, and Canada.
But after the Baron died in 1896, bequeathing seven million pounds sterling (equivalent to $US 1.12 billion in today’s dollars) to the JCA,1 a newly elected board of trustees voted to use some of this windfall to expand JCA’s colonization activities to southern Brazil,2where the JCA purchased land in 1902.3
For those willing to emigrate to these colonies the JCA offered to ” cover travel expenses and provide each settler with 25-30 hectares [60-75 acres] of land, a house, agricultural implements, two teams of oxen, two cows, one horse and an allowance that varied in accordance with the size of the family, payable once it had become self-sufficient.” 4
Homesteaders first reached the JCA’s first Brazilian colony, Philippson, or Filipson in Portuguese, in 1904. Philippson was located near the city of Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The JCA had not yet built the houses they had promised, so the thirty-seven families were housed in barracks. It took months for the settlers to be assigned land and, once assigned, they discovered it was very hard to farm.
Dreams of turning Jewish tradesmen into farmers date back to the mid-eighteenth century and feature some strange bedfellows. Besides Baron Hirsch, these utopian efforts involved Polish patriots, Russian Czars, German Mennonites, and of course, the Zionists. Like Thomas Jefferson, these Europeans and many other eighteenth-century and early nineteenth-century thinkers believed that “cultivators of the earth are the most valuable citizens . . , the most vigorous. . . [and] the most virtuous.”1
The idea of turning Jews into farmers to make them vigorous and virtuous was first proposed In Eastern Europe in the mid-eighteenth century when Austria, Germany, and Russia were trying to gobble up Poland. To ward off this national decapitation the Polish government sought to strengthen Polish society. One concern was the large number of non-assimilated Jews who had settled in Poland since the 12th Century because of the relatively liberal environment that allowed them to prosper and practice their religion. Many of the Jews worked for the nobles, managing estates and selling crops.
By the late 18th century, half of the world’s Jews, about 1.5 million, lived in Poland. The Polish bourgeoisie considered this large community of Jews to be unwelcome competitors and the general populous put the Jews in the same basket as the nobles, resenting both. Polish leaders saw these conflicts as one more cause for the weakness of the country. They thought that if Jews would become farmers they would be like everyone else and the conflicts would cease. Plans were drawn up but were never implemented. And Austria, Germany, and Russia did gobble up Poland.
The majority of the Polish Jews, approximately 1 million, lived in the areas of Eastern Poland that were annexed by Russia between 1772 and 1795. (Listen to a discussion on how this annexation affected these Polish Jews.)
So when Czar Alexander I rose to the throne in 1801 he faced a dual dilemma. First, how could he populate New Russia and Crimea in southern Russia, lands recently conquered from the Ottomans following the Russo-Turkish Wars? In addition, how could the Czar integrate the one million Jews who had recently come under Russian rule through these partitions of Poland?
Where did early 20th Century Jewish shopkeepers earn so much that they wintered in Paris’ most elegant hotel? In Fleischmanns, a summer home for wealthy German-American Jews, founded in the Western Catskills, in 1883 by Charles Fleischmann of the yeast company fame.
These wealthy summer residents drew lots of Jewish entrepreneurs, many of Hungarian origin, who set up stores, hotels, and camps to service this affluent community. Beginning in the second decade of the 20th Century Eastern European Jewish farmers, storekeepers, and summer visitors also added to the area’s population.
How did Fleischmanns become a Jewish village? It all started with Joseph Seligmann, a Jew from Bavaria. He arrived in the US in 1837 at the age of 18. By the late 1870s, he was a multi-millionaire, his family having made a fortune clothing the Union army. Years later they even helped finance the Panama Canal.
In the summer of 1877, Seligmann took his family to Saratoga, NY a very fashionable resort, to stay at the Grand Union Hotel where they had stayed before. But this time he and his family were turned away because they were “Hebrews”. As we shall see, it could be said that this act of anti-Semitism was what caused Fleischmann’s founding.
The Seligmann affair became a major scandal widely reported, including in the NY Times. 1. There was even a song written about it:
“The Hebrews they need not apply; the reason we do not know why; But still they do say, it’s a free country; where the Hebrews they need not apply!“
This story was kindly shared by Joyce Zelnick Weiss. Another story of Growing up on a Chicken Farmin Toms River, by Joyce’s husband Ben Weiss can be found by clicking aquí.
How did a little girl from the big city end up on a chicken farm in the middle of New Jersey?
I will try to tell you my story of living on a farm in the middle of nowhere. In the 1940s Toms River was much further from Brooklyn than it is now. Transportation was not readily available. We would ride on a bus for a few hours while passengers came and went at various stops in New Jersey. For those lucky enough to have a car it was a shorter trip.
BROOKLYN – TOMS RIVER
I was 9 years old when my father, Max, and mother, Bess, decided to move to Toms River. My father was a pharmacist who owned his own store in Brooklyn, N.Y. We lived on the top floor of a two-family house, and Bess’s parents lived downstairs. My parents were immigrants from Ukraine, and it was common to live close to the relatives and friends that one knew from the old country. So my comfort circle of people that I saw all the time were mostly all related to us.
We used to visit my Uncle Philip and Aunt Bertha in Toms River, New Jersey, on their chicken farm which they bought after selling their grocery business in Newark, N.J. Uncle Philip was one of my father’s older brothers, and he was married to Aunt Bertha.
I don’t know how my relatives ended up in TomsRiver, and I never did find out but, for reasons unknown to me, my parents decided that getting out of the city and moving to the country was a good decision for them and for their children. I don’t recall how long it took for us to pack up and move, but before I knew what was happening, we had moved.
La búsqueda en línea está disponible para los registros genealógicos relacionados con Baron Hirsch disponibles a través del Centro de Historia Judía en Nueva York. Vea el video en este enlace de Facebook a continuación para obtener instrucciones. Algunos registros completos están en línea, y cuando solo hay una referencia a un registro en línea, puede solicitar el documento completo al Centro.
In addition, the genealogical and historical archives described below (alphabetized by city) contain reports and correspondence relating to Baron Hirsch-funded Jewish farming projects and individual immigrants who received aid from the Baron Hirsch charitable organizations. These archives are scattered around the world. Some of the holdings have been uploaded digitally – see the links below – but most are only available on-site.
Para los textos en francés, español y portugués, sugiero copiar y pegar en el traductor de Google. Realmente funciona.
En 1913, Selig y Malke Grossinger, ayudados por la Sociedad Agrícola Judía (JAS) del Fondo Baron Hirsch, compraron una granja en las montañas Catskills en Ferndale, Nueva York, 100 millas al norte de Manhattan. Comenzaron a recibir huéspedes que pagaban y que huían del calor y la humedad de la ciudad de Nueva York cada verano. 1
Los Grossinger estaban entre las cerca de dos mil familias judías inmigrantes que compraron granjas en las estribaciones de las montañas Catskills en la década de 1890 o durante las primeras décadas del siglo XX, muchas de ellas con ayuda de JAS. Al igual que estos otros agricultores, los Grossingers descubrieron que el suelo rocoso de Catskills, que les había permitido comprar la tierra a bajo precio, no respondía bien a la cosecha.
Pero los huéspedes de verano que buscaban aire fresco y comida kosher eran realmente rentables. La empresa de los Grossingers se volvió extremadamente rentable, con 150,000 invitados cada año, servida en una propiedad de más de 1200 acres que contaba con su propio aeródromo y artistas tan famosos como Frank Sinatra y Jerry Lewis. Grossingers también fue el primer centro turístico del país en utilizar nieve artificial en sus pistas de esquí. Y Elizabeth Taylor y Eddie Fisher se casaron en Grossingers.
El nido del ruiseñor tiene lugar en 1920 en una granja judía en Condado de Ulster NY, en las montañas Catskill, a 100 millas al noroeste de Manhattan. Puede leer más sobre la agricultura judía en Catskills y el apoyo del Fondo Baron Hirsch para estos esfuerzos. aquí.
Muchos granjeros judíos en Catskills, como la familia en El nido del ruiseñor, Alquilamos habitaciones para visitantes de verano de los barrios atestados de Nueva York. Estos huéspedes que pagan con frecuencia estaban en el Kuchalayn plan, cocinando sus propias comidas, ofreciendo a los agricultores un mercado listo para sus productos. Al igual que la familia Lippman - Miller, de Bielorrusia, descrita en esta historia, estos granjeros judíos a menudo obtuvieron financiamiento para comprar estas granjas Baron Hirsch Sociedad Judía Agrícola.
Nadie se preocupaba más por los animales que la abuela, si cumplían con sus simples especificaciones de dar leche o huevos. Ella toleraba a un gato para el servicio necesario, pero solo a regañadientes se le daba espacio en la casa.
Desde que tengo memoria, hubo una batalla entre mi abuela y mi abuelo debido a su afecto por un caballo. Durante el verano, cuando el caballo pastaba en los campos abiertos y no requería mayores gastos que la mano de obra, podía pasar por alto su absurda extravagancia. Pero en invierno era una historia diferente; ella haría la vida miserable para el pobre abuelo cuando llegaran las facturas de alimentación.
Con este post, sobre los escritos de Micaela Feldman y Etchebéhère, un capitán de brigada judío de la Guerra Civil española, nacido en la colonia Baron Hirsch, asistió a la colonia Moises Ville en Argentina, thebaronhirschcommunity.org se da cuenta del comienzo de una intención de larga data: hacer que este blog sea trilingüe. Nuestro objetivo es presentar información en los idiomas que se convirtieron en las lenguas maternas de los descendientes de inmigrantes que recibieron el apoyo del barón Hirsch, inglés, portugués y español.
Entonces, es apropiado que comencemos con la historia de una de las hijas del proyecto que inició toda la iniciativa del Barón Hirsch, la colonia Moisés Ville en Argentina, fundada en 1889.
Comenzamos compartiendo el enlace a un artículo, Identidad, género y prácticas anarquistas en las memorias de Micaela Feldman y Etchebéhère (Identidad, género y prácticas anarquistas en las memorias de Micaela Feldman y Etchebéhère) por el investigador de estudios culturales Cynthia Gabbay. Este artículo analiza el campo cultural o el entorno de este autor franco-argentino, hija de inmigrantes judíos ruso-ucranianos que fueron algunos de los colonos originales en el Moisés Ville comunidad agrícola en la provincia de Santa Fé en Argentina. Esta comunidad, donde Micaela nació, fundado en 1889, fue el primer intento del barón Hirsch de establecer a los judíos de Europa del Este como granjeros en el Nuevo Mundo. Basado en esta experiencia, en 1891 fundó el Asociación de colonización judía que gastó miles de millones de dólares en proyectos similares durante los siguientes 75 años.
(Para aquellos que no leen español, no tengan miedo. En breve, publicaremos, en inglés, otro artículo sobre Micaela, también escrito por el Dr. Gabbay).